Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Sport And Sport Education Model - 1521 Words

The Sport Education model is something I was never familiar with prior to taking this class. Growing up throughout elementary school and into high school, you don’t really think about the structure of â€Å"gym class† you just go and have fun for an hour. The Sport Education model is nothing I was ever exposed to growing up because all of my classes were very teacher centered with instructions. To break it down simply, this model works in seasons and not units. Changing sport to sport each week isn’t how this model is set up because one of the main goals is to form chemistry between the students. Daryl Siedentop developed this curriculum back in 1986 with the understanding it was going to educate students in skills, values and attitudes of good sports. With the three main components of planning, implementation and assessing, this education model is sweeping all upper elementary and high school PE classes. The Sport Education model has some defining characteristics that make it unique. The first being the framework of sports being implemented into seasons. Each season is typically 12 lessons which promote more depth and understanding of the material. It’s more for the students to do then just show up and participate with no gumption or drive being attached to it. The second would be affiliation, being part of a team for the entire â€Å"season† creating a bond between the teammates. Chemistry forms when you are with a group for a certain amount of time, so without knowingShow MoreRelated Adventure Education and Wilderness Sports1275 Words   |  6 Pagesyou do something and do not receive the results you want? I know you are not and nobody is. Everyone wants improvement in the world and people are happy and satisfied when everything is right. This concept can be applied to the world of physical education in today’s society. Obesity has slowly become one of the most problematic diseases that exist in the United States and the world today. The U.S. has been greatly impacted by this disease and more and more people in today’s society are overweightRead MoreTechnical and Tactical Classification of Games and Physical Activity1324 Words   |  5 Pagesmajor sport classification together with the different methods and instructional approaches. Introduction The work of Dyson, Griffin and Hastie (2004) entitled Sport Education, Tactical Games and Cooperative Learning: Theoretical and Pedagogical Considerations states that many educators hold the belief that students rather than the teacher should be at the center of the teaching and learning process. (p.226) However, it is reported as well by Dyson, Griffin and Hastie that Sport Education (SE)Read MoreGender Inequality Around The World1437 Words   |  6 Pagestreated as equals to their male counterparts. Their education is taken for granted, their sports are not taken seriously, and their beauty is held to an almost unattainable standard. The inequality that women and girls face does not end here, but they are some of the most overlooked points on the subject. Although most places where girls are deprived of an education boys are too, more girls will not continue their education or will not receive an education at all than boys. There are over one million EthiopianRead MoreEqual Pay Act And Title Ix1485 Words   |  6 Pagesis still nowhere near the participation of male athletes. Many women still do not participate in sports due to discrimination and the concept of equality in Title IX could potentially affect women’s interest in athletic participation. Sports teach important life lessons such as teamwork, discipline, leadership and time-management that benefit males and females alike. Women who participate in sports are more likely to have a higher self esteem, positive body image, better physical and mental healthRead MoreEssay about Education in Sport708 Words   |  3 PagesEducation in Sport The development of modern sport as a global entity have been inextricably linked to the concept of education. Modern sport originated in educational institutes primarily in Britain during the mid-to-late nineteenth century, and was exported worldwide as an integral part of that educational system. Within these institutions, sport was originally seen as a device for building and demonstrating character, a rather vague term that is still used as aRead MoreHow Sports Affect Society1566 Words   |  7 PagesEnglish 102-029 May 3, 2013 How sport affects society From the earliest chapters of history, sports have been part of humanity. This can be proved by the games that were played in Mayan and Egypt civilization. Games such as hockey, rugby and football has had what one can call religious following while athletics are characterized by massive celebrations. The importance of sports in the society is gaining increased recognition from both the social and education points of view. Relevant sportingRead MoreSports in Everyday Life640 Words   |  3 PagesSports in everyday life According to Gandhiji and Tagore, all round development of a child should depend upon the true education imparted to us. Education must be the result of overall development of the child i.e. Mental, moral, social physical. Education develops a personality which a person carries forward in his/her life. But now-a-days more stress is laid on the mental development. Merely being good in academics is not everything. More and more importance should be given to physical developmentRead MoreWhy College Athletes Should Not Be Paid1301 Words   |  6 Pagesscholarships are their compensation and a fair one at that. Essentially they receive a free education and in return they represent the school in a certain sport. College athletes don t have to worry about student loans, paying for textbooks, the cost of on-campus living, and meal plans† (McCauley). These athletes are given all the essentials to succeed in college: food, a place to live, alongside a free high level education. This scholarship money is very big for anyone who is going to college and would takeRead MoreBaseball And Its Impact On Baseball1736 Words   |  7 Pagesfell in love with the sport, but not everyone could play. Racial discrimination found its way to baseball when the game was first discovered and created many controversies that prevented many colored players from playing the game because of their skin color. This could be part of the reason why in today’s culture, you do not see many black Americans playing the game of baseball. The steady decline in black Americans playing baseball could also be contributed to other sports like basketball and footballRead MoreSports For Development Programs Make A Difference1455 Words   |  6 PagesGaye Ãâ€"zarslan Sport for Development 15/10/2015 Essay 1: Final Draft Can Sport for Development Programs make a difference in overcoming problems of the developing world? The question that whether sport can help development efforts or not is a highly debated topic. Sport for Development Programs are the organizations that use sport to accomplish specific goals regarding peace and development (Right to Play, n.d.). Some argue that Sport for Development

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Becoming a Master Manager - 1427 Words

Becoming a Master Manager Styles of Leadership in the Competing Values Framework In order to be able to solve problems appropriately within a company, a manager has to be able to inspire others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. This process is called Leadership. To be successful in this area, the manager has to find a balance between task and relationship orientation. According to Kenneth Blanchard: â€Å"The key to successful leadership is influence, not authority†. Even though this sounds simple and understandable, it is quite complicated to act in an appropriate way in different situation. To be able to implement the appropriate behaviour, different styles have to be considered. This will be done in the following paragraphs.†¦show more content†¦Compared to the innovator, this type of manager has more grip on planning and organizing. This means, that whenever there is a conflict, he is able to sit together and discuss the conflict. He is open for new ideas, to implement changes that will ensure proper communication flows. What he does have to change, is his productivity insight. This type of manager tends to procrastinate and focus too much on motivation and inspiration. He has to become a skilled, serious and result focused manager. If he changes his attitude towards this direction, the communication flow in his department will improve significantly. Control Communication problems within a company can be very disturbing especially for the controlling department. In the controlling department a coordinator manage projects, designing work, managing across functions etc. in order to maintain these points they have to be able to monitor in a proper way. If there is a communication problem between the management department and the employees it means that the managers receive incorrect- or incomplete information. This can result in lower quality and inefficiency working methods. This can also de-stimulate the employees to communicate with the managers referring to improving points or new ideas. In order to improve this, managers should show more interest in employees’ suggestions, improve the ease to communicate to theShow MoreRelatedBecoming a Master Manager1421 Words   |  6 PagesBecoming a Master Manager Styles of Leadership in the Competing Values Framework In order to be able to solve problems appropriately within a company, a manager has to be able to inspire others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. This process is called Leadership. To be successful in this area, the manager has to find a balance between task and relationship orientation. According to Kenneth Blanchard: â€Å"The key to successful leadership is influence, not authority†. Even though this soundsRead MoreOrganizational Goals Of A Manager1622 Words   |  7 Pagesconsist of a front line supervisor, store manager, or team leader, but regardless of their role and whether they are top, middle, or first line managers, they all have four essential concepts they must learn to master in order to be successful. â€Å"Managers are individuals in an organization who direct and oversee the activities of other people in the organization so organizational goals can be accomplished† (Robbins, DeCenzo, Coulter, 2015). In order for a manager to be able to do their job effectivelyRead MoreEffective Leadership For A Positive Change Agent956 Words   |  4 PagesThis can be observed through the review of workplace changes at Wet n Wild Sydney in relation to Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s paper ‘Leadership for change: Enduring skills for change masters’ (Kanter, 2005). The skills of a positive change agent are described in detail by Kanter and are vital to becoming a positive change master. There are three phases of change projects according to Kanter. The first phase, generating ideas, involves skills such as sensing needs and opportunities for change and usingRead MoreOrganizational Leadership, Managing People And Strategic Planning1060 Words   |  5 Pagespeople and strategic planning. (study.com) As well as it looks better for applying to jobs to have a bachelor’s degree. Most people will continue their education by earning a master in Business Administration. It is a respected advanced degree and it shows how committed someone is to leading in that field. Obtaining a master will usually take an extra year or two. For students getting a degree in business administration must take their common core classes of course like all majors. The business coreRead MoreThe Importance Of Soft And Soft Skills Essay1207 Words   |  5 Pagesjob.â₠¬  He also emphasized the importance of soft skills today as they will help employees to get the jobs they want, as well as to keep them. In other words, everyone should master soft skills in order to advance in future careers. This paper discusses the importance of soft skills in the accounting profession, and how to master these skills to be successful in maintaining as well as advancing in a future career as a leader. What are soft skills? According to Davidson (2016), soft skills are personalRead MoreStarbucks : A Coffee Shop For Their Frappuccino1649 Words   |  7 Pageswho work at Starbucks are members of their own subculture. A subculture is a group within society that shares the same values and interests. The people who work at Starbucks are made up by baristas, the entry level employee, shift supervisors, and managers. This team of employees’ works together closely to provide customers with the best experience and produce possible. Through working so intimately with one’s coworkers creates the aspects of a subculture. Without them Starbucks as a company and perRead MoreCareer Development And Planning Serves Five Essential Purpose1331 Words   |  6 PagesAfter discussing future’s plan with Amanda, she discussed her future plans of becoming Human Resources Director in ten years. Career development and planning serves five essential purpose: encourage, develop new skill s, alleviate plateauing, satisfy employment, and increase employment. My ultimate goal when developing a model a career planning for Amanda, I would want to use the Waterloo University Model. I would want to model each essential factors of the key points stages. These stages includeRead MoreThe Principles Of The Competing Values Framework1457 Words   |  6 PagesThe purpose of the Competing Values Framework is to facilitate the process of managers gaining a better understanding of the various managerial roles and how they can be applied more effectively in an environment of competing tensions. Each role is distinct and seemingly contradictory, but must be intertwined in order for a manager to achieve optimal efficiency; ultimately becoming a master manager. Master managers are expected to â€Å"possess the ability to play multiple, even competing roles in a highlyRead MorePersonal Statement : Senior Emigration From My Native Iran At The Age Of 171456 Words   |  6 Pagessuppl ied rises as the market price rises, and falls as the price would inevitably fall, in relation to the Law of Demand, where the quantity of a good demanded falls as the price rises, and vice versa. That being said, my job as a global supply chain manager is to maintain this precarious relationship, knowing when and how to control the market economy to effectively dictate certain beneficial outcomes that produce the highest margin of profitability. Corporations control the means of production, meaningRead MoreMasters in Nursing With a Bias in Leadership and Administration655 Words   |  3 Pageswell equipped to handle the challenging roles of executive leadership in a health care setting. This text addresses the various benefits a hospital would derive from having a nurse leader complete a Masters in Nursing with a bias in leadership/administration. Discussion In basic terms, a Masters in Nursing with a bias in leadership/administration equips nurse leaders with the necessary skills as well as knowledge required to handle challenging and demanding leadership roles in a health care setting

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Leadership Empowerment Principle Free Essays

The leader manifests an important role in each group or organization. He has the main objective of directing and leading the group towards the effective and efficient accomplishment and achievement of their tasks and common interest. He acts as the mediator and the source of power or command inside the group or organization for the management aspect of the diversity, individuality, and unity of each member for the processing and delegation of their different tasks and responsibilities. We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership Empowerment Principle or any similar topic only for you Order Now In general, the leader manifest as the core and central unit of the group making his the head element towards the realization and achievement of their common interest. In the contemporary perspective of group management, the aspect of leadership can be achieve and realize inside the group through different approaches each focusing on a certain aspect in the said aspect. Each leader is uniquely characterized by their specific style and nature of approach towards their purpose inside the group or organization. Every particular leader particularly focuses on a specific element on his leadership style which he views to be important and beneficial to the agenda of managing his group. This certain leadership style can be acknowledged through the realization of the elements he employs in managing his group and its influence to the effectiveness of their organization. In the aspect of realizing the leadership style for self-assessment, the author of this paper particularly examined specific points and elements for the assessment of his leadership style and the effectiveness of his approach. Based form the specific element highlighted in his approach, the author of this paper has realized the certain qualities in his leadership approach and the specific aspect he needs further development for greater effectiveness. From this assessment, the author of this paper has particularly learned the certain strength in his qualities namely the Chain of Command approach in leadership. In this quality, the author of this paper acknowledges that he finds certain strength in developing a sole authority for decision making and setting himself apart from the group for the chain of command. Through which that he is able to effectively manage his member and delegate the specific tasks necessary in their process. As also viewed in this assessment, the author of this paper also expresses interest in developing on the qualities of the centralized leadership particularly on developing group communication elements necessary for this approach. This leader particularly sees an opening for improvement in this aspect to develop an organization environment wherein he is a member but also the leader that directs everyone’s activities. Further on assessment, the author of this paper realizes that his style is best characterized as a partnership approach towards group management wherein aside from being the one with sole authority, he is also the supporter, coach and facilitator for each member’s activities. His style is to communicate and coordinate the activity of the group through imposing several tasks and responsibilities for each member particularly on the decision-making aspect. Thus, each member has their own tasks, responsibility, and specific decision taking part as co-leaders and members in the group. In particular, the author of this paper has the style of sharing the responsibility with the members and acting out as the supporter and facilitator for them. This style is also manifested by the author of this paper as part of his interest of developing a highly empowered leadership style in the group wherein the members are self-directed and has the full ownership of their tasks and most aspect of their jobs. The current approach of the author of this paper is mainly included as the initial step in developing the said approach wherein he is training the member to become independent on their responsibilities with the leader acting as the supporter and the coordinator for the organization tasks. This is mainly implemented on the interest of focusing more attention to the external forces and elements in the group as the members have already became self-directed and responsible for their group activity. Indeed, the leadership style and approach of each person is important as the effectiveness and efficiency of this aspect and the entire group process relies on the management and directing approach of their leader. Each style or approach has its respective element which is highlighted in the process towards the development of its effective application in the group. The effectiveness of this style relies on the characterizing factors and elements of the group, the issues that the organization must face, and the application approach of the leader which must be inclined towards the achievement and realization of the common good and interest of the entire organization. Bibliography Ohio Literacy Resources Center. Transformative Leadership: Leadership Development. http://literacy.kent.edu/Oasis/Leadership/over2.htm#lead. November 30, 2007. Â   How to cite Leadership Empowerment Principle, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Role of Effective Communication And Interpersonal Interaction

Question: Describe about The Role Of Effective Communication And Interpersonal Interaction As A Children's Nurse? Answer: Introduction to effective communication and interpersonal interaction in Childcare process The nursing practice works on different principles at different life-stages of their client that are childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. The nursing care of children involves different aspects of caring, communicating, interactions and treatment processes. The children care to occur in the range of settings that involves hospitals, day care centres, childs home or child health clinics but the baseline of nursing care for children depends on the communication and interaction developed with children. Childhood is the developmental stage of life and any illness in this age leads to more drastic psychological and mental defects rather than physical, therefore, nurse caring for children need to have special skills to rescue this distress phase of childs life (Blais, 2015). The exceptional communication skills are the most essential attribute of nursing care involving effective ways to communicate with patients, co-workers, supervisors, subordinates, families and friends of children to build a strong interpersonal interaction as a health care professional. This strong interpersonal interaction at personal and professional level helps to reduce stress, promote wellness, enhance quality treatment and therefore, delivering best nursing care for children (Jones, 2012). Effective communication between nurse and patient is essential for the outcome of individual nursing care competency from the prospect of nurses as well as for the fulfilment of overall patient treatment requirements. Effective communication works as a tool for building interpersonal relationships when performing childcare (Brinkert, 2010). As per Dyadic Interpersonal Communication Model the two people involved in an interaction process work as sender and recipient or encoder and decoder. The models state that interpersonal interaction is a result of encoding and decoding process that is established by communication. Similarly effective nursing communication works as a tool for interaction between the nurse and patient leading to interpersonal interaction (Peate et al. 2014). Role of communication in Nurse-Children Interaction There is a fine line difference between telling and communicating because communication also involves listening process. Hence, effective communication in nursing care is a skill build to fill the communication gap between care center and patient. Being at the hospital is a crucial phase of childs life because they get psychologically disturbed while being at such place in life leading to anger, impatient, and stressful behavioural response. Here the effective communication works more than medication to control these psychological and mental modifications in childs attitude. The nurse should politely and patiently communicate to make children feel homely, comfortable and satisfied at care centers that will enhance the treatment process (Riesenberg et al. 2010). Children generally are not able to express their needs and suffering when compared to adults in the care process. But, it is observed that children share their feelings with nurses who communicate with them in a proper manner. As per Habermas critical theory, understanding the patient will surely help in understanding the treatment and nursing communication is a proper tool for this process. As children nurse the skills of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) also play a very importance role in understanding children with complex communication needs (CCN) (Mullan and Kothe, 2010). The effective nurse-children interaction also depends on the interpersonal interaction development with others like patient family, co-workers and supervisors as a professional nurse. If the nurse is not able to establish this interaction than there will be no effect of effective communication on the treatment process. For Example- If the children transmit his needs to nurse but the nurse is not able to interact and communicate this information to concerned healthcare provider than it automatically looses its effect on treatment (Peate et al. 2014). Role of interpersonal interaction as childrens Nurse The sensitive and responsive nursing interaction with children helps to fulfil the neurophysiological, psychological and physical development needs of children. Across different cultures, the caregiver and children relationship is always nurtured by warm, responsive, rich, positive and protective interaction because children cannot handle the environments that do not show competency with their threshold characteristics (Stewart, 2012). As per studies of the neurobiology of interpersonal development, the caregivers architects the human connections that lead to the brain development of the child because human connections construct neuronal connections (Peate et al. 2014). The establishment of interpersonal relationship not only helps in improving attachment with the patient but also with other people involved in caregiving process that involves co-workers, supervisor, doctors and family of the patient. The interpersonal interaction also works for children with disabilities by establishing the socio-emotional development of children. The parent-medicated developmental process is the most successful interpersonal interaction for treatment of the disabled child. In this interaction, the adults are indirectly involved to promote childs development and they are instructed by nurses on the activities to perform in the development process (Stewart, 2012). Along with this interpersonal interaction of nurses with Doctors and supervisor involved in the treatment of disabled child helps to understand and analyse the psychological, physical and emotional needs of such children. The nurse establishing an effective communication with children and further transmitting this information to higher care providers as well as their parents establishes an interpersonal interaction and better treatment processes (Jones, 2012). Conclusion The effective communication and interpersonal interaction performed by nurses work as key elements for better childrens development as well as treatment process to deliver quality care. The effective communication working as a tool for interpersonal interaction helps to build a strong, genuine, meaningful and hopeful relationships between nurse, patient, parents and other healthcare professionals. References Books Blais, K., (2015).Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. USA: Prentice Hall. Peate, I., Wild, K. and Nair, M., (2014).Nursing Practice: Knowledge and Care. John Wiley Sons. Journals Brinkert, R., (2010). A literature review of conflict communication causes, costs, benefits and interventions in nursing.Journal of Nursing Management,18(2), pp.145-156. Jones, A., (2012). The foundation of good nursing practice: effective communication.Journal of Renal Nursing,4(1), pp.37-41. Mullan, B.A. and Kothe, E.J., (2010). Evaluating a nursing communication skills training course: The relationships between self-rated ability, satisfaction, and actual performance.Nurse education in practice,10(6), pp.374-378. Riesenberg, L.A., Leisch, J. and Cunningham, J.M., (2010). Nursing handoffs: a systematic review of the literature.AJN The American Journal of Nursing,110 (4), pp.24-34. Stewart, M. (2012). Communication, Children, and Cortisol. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 27(3), pp.214-215.

Thursday, April 2, 2020

How to Use WordPress Geo Location Targeting 2 Plugins + Some Tips

Interested in using WordPress geo location data to personalize your website based on a users physical location?Geo location or geo targeting is very commonplace. It can be used for advertising, or to get highly-targeted content in front of the right audience. In other words, it enables you to target your websites experience, which can lead to more conversions.In this article, were going to dig deeper into how geo targeting works and how you can use it to your benefit on a website. Then well talk about WordPress geo location plugins and some best practices. Lets get to work! your IP address or information about nearby wireless networks.The point is, there are a ton of ways by which you can geo locate users, and you can use the data to great effect. For example, you can:Display ads to users in a specific cityShow highly-targeted posts to visitors depending on where they liveDisplay information about nearby events by pulling location dataOverall, the main advantage that geo location inf ormation gives you is its ability to show highly targeted content to users of interest. This means they get content thats more likely to engage them, and you might improve conversion rates along the way – a win-win!Two helpful WordPress geo location pluginsThere are a lot of ways to implement geo location on your website. However, since were talking about WordPress, the easiest approach is to use plugins to get the job done. Lets talk about two of our favorites and how they work.1. GEO my WordPress GEO my WordPress Author(s): Eyal FitoussiCurrent Version: 3.3Last Updated: May 31, 2019geo-my-wp.3.3.zip 90%Ratings 161,118Downloads WP 4.3+Requires The GEO my WordPress  plugin combines several functionalities related to locations. For one, it lets you add location tags to your content, whether its pages, posts, or custom post types. It can also identify your users locations and use this information to help them find the content they need.For example – imagine you re working on a real estate website and you want to add location tags to the properties youre showcasing. With GEO my WordPress you can do so, and create search forms to help users find properties based on their own location:This is just one application, though and since the plugin supports custom post types, you can add location tags to almost any type of content you can imagine.Key Features:Add location data to your pages, posts, and custom post types.Integrate WordPress with Google Maps or OpenStreetMap.Find the location of your users (with their consent!).Create location-based search forms.Overall, GEO my WordPress is an excellent pick if you want to publish content thats targeted for specific locations. It even works with WooCommerce, which opens up a lot of possibilities for your online store. If you want to read more about how to use the plugin, check out its documentation.2. GeoIP Detection GeoIP Detection Author(s): Yellow Tree (Benjamin Pick)Current Version: 2.12.0Last Updated: September 11, 2019geoip-detect.zip 98%Ratings 153,405Downloads WP 4.0+Requires GeoIP Detection works similarly to our previous pick in that it enables you to find your visitors location and target content specifically towards them. However, this particular plugin is much more targeted towards developers.What the plugin does is add a handful of functions and shortcodes you can use throughout your website to pull visitors IP addresses and show or hide content depending on the exact data.If you dont mind digging into your websites files and fiddling with code, this plugin can give you a lot of flexibility as to how you want to implement geo targeting. For example, you could configure your online store to automatically choose a currency based on your visitors location, and more.Key Features:Adds five unique geo location functions to WordPress.You can display or hide any type of content depending on a users location.However, its worth noting that if youre not somewhat exper ienced with PHP, using this plugin may induce a headache or two. Even so, you can easily  check out the functions the plugin adds to WordPress and what they do.When to use geo location (and how to do it effectively)Geo location can be incredibly useful, but its also not the kind of functionality every website needs. For example, if youre running a blog, there arent a lot of situations where pulling your visitors location makes sense (unless its for marketing purposes).In general, people can be kind of skittish about sharing location data online. Its an incredibly common practice nowadays, but it still pays to be respectful about the way you use geo location.Weve already explored some examples of websites where implementing geo location makes sense, such as:Online storesReal estate websitesLocal business listingsIn those cases, you can improve your websites functionality by refining the results you show based on location. A great starting point is to use an analytics tool to get a comprehensive breakdown of where your sites audience is located.Armed with this data, you can figure out local search trends for the specific geographic regions where you want to improve conversions. This is important because creating highly targeted content for a broad audience is time intensive. What you need to do is think about where your efforts can have the largest impact, and focus there!ConclusionThe idea of geo targeting can be intimidating. However, this technology presents you with a lot of benefits. The more targeted your content is, the better your chances of engaging your audience and getting them to convert.As for how to implement geo location in WordPress, the easiest way is to use plugins, and here are two top options:GEO my WordPress:  With this plugin, you can add location tags to your content using the editor.GeoIP Detection:  If youd rather get your hands dirty, this plugin adds several geo location functions to WordPress. Free guide5 Essential Tips to Speed Up Your WordPress SiteReduce your loading time by even 50-80% just by following simple tips.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

The Effects of War on the Environment

The Effects of War on the Environment The natural environment has been a strategic element of war since the first rock was thrown by the first cave dweller. The armies of ancient Rome and Assyria, to ensure the total capitulation of their enemies, reportedly sowed salt into the cropland of their foes, making the soil useless for farming- an early use of military herbicide, and one of the most devastating environmental effects of war. But history also provides lessons in eco-sensitive warfare. The Bible, in Deuteronomy 20:19, stays the hand of the warrior to minimize wars impact on nature and men alike: When you besiege a city a long time, to make war against it in order to capture it, you shall not destroy its trees by swinging an axe against them; for you may eat from them, and you shall not cut them down. For is the tree of the field a man, that it should be besieged by you? War and the Environment: Weve Been Lucky so Far War is waged differently today, of course, and has widespread environmental impacts that last far longer. The technology has changed, and the potential effects of the technology are very different, says Carl Bruch, co-director of international programs at the Environmental Law Institute in Washington, D.C. Bruch, who is also the co-author of The Environmental Consequences of War: Legal, Economic, and Scientific Perspectives, notes that modern chemical, biological, and nuclear warfare has the potential to wreak unprecedented environmental havoc that, fortunately, we havent seen- yet. This is a great threat, Bruch says. But in some cases, precision weapons and other technological advances can shield the environment by targeting key facilities, leaving other areas relatively unscathed. You could make the argument that these weapons have the ability to minimize collateral damage, says Geoffrey Dabelko, director of the Environmental Change and Security Program at the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. Its Local: the Impact of War Today Warfare today also occurs infrequently between independent nations; more often, armed conflict breaks out between rival factions within a nation. These localized civil wars, according to Bruch, are usually beyond the reach of international treaties and bodies of law. Internal conflict is viewed as a matter of sovereignty- an internal matter, he says. As a result, environmental damage, like human rights violations, occurs unchecked by outside organizations. Though skirmishes, armed conflicts, and open warfare vary tremendously by region and by weapons used, the effects of war on the environment usually involve the following broad categories. Habitat Destruction and Refugees Perhaps the most famous example of habitat devastation occurred during the Vietnam War  when U.S. forces sprayed herbicides like Agent Orange on the forests and mangrove swamps that provided cover to guerrilla soldiers. An estimated 20 million gallons of herbicide were used, decimating about 4.5 million acres in the countryside. Some regions are not expected to recover for several decades. Additionally, when warfare causes the mass movement of people, the resulting impacts on the environment can be catastrophic. Widespread deforestation, unchecked hunting, soil erosion, and contamination of land and water by human waste occur when thousands of humans are forced to settle in a new area. During the Rwandan conflict in 1994, much of that countrys Akagera National Park was opened to refugees; as a result, local populations of animals like the roan antelope and the eland became extinct. Invasive Species Military ships, cargo airplanes, and trucks often carry more than soldiers and munitions; non-native plants and animals can also ride along, invading new areas and wiping out native species in the process. Laysan Island in the Pacific Ocean was once home to a number of rare plants and animals, but troop movements during and after World War II introduced rats that nearly wiped out the Laysan finch and the Laysan rail, as well as bringing in sandbur, an invasive plant that crowds out the native bunchgrass that local birds depend on for habitat. Infrastructure Collapse Among the first and most vulnerable targets of attack in a military campaign are the enemys roads, bridges, utilities, and other infrastructure. While these dont form part of the natural environment, the destruction of wastewater treatment plants, for example, severely degrades regional water quality. During the 1990s fighting in Croatia, chemical manufacturing plants were bombed; because treatment facilities for chemical spills werent functioning, toxins flowed downstream unchecked until the conflict ended. Increased Production Even in regions not directly affected by warfare, increased production in manufacturing, agriculture and other industries that support a war effort can wreak havoc on the natural environment. During World War I, former wilderness areas of the United States came under cultivation for wheat, cotton, and other crops, while vast stands of timber were clear-cut to meet wartime demand for wood products. Timber in Liberia, oil in Sudan, and diamonds in Sierra Leone are all exploited by military factions. These provide a revenue stream that is used to buy weapons, says Bruch. Scorched Earth Practices, Hunting, and Poaching The destruction of your own homeland is a time-honored, albeit tragic, wartime custom. The term scorched earth originally applied to the burning of crops and buildings that might feed and shelter the enemy, but its now applied to any environmentally destructive strategy. To thwart invading Japanese troops during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), Chinese authorities dynamited a dike on the Yellow River, drowning thousands of Japanese soldiers- and thousands of Chinese peasants- while also flooding millions of square miles of land. Similarly, if an army crawls on its stomach, as is often says, then feeding an army often requires hunting local animals, especially larger mammals that often have lower rates of reproduction. In the ongoing war in Sudan, poachers seeking meat for soldiers and civilians have had a tragic effect on bush animal populations in Garamba National Park, just across the border in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At one point, the number of elephants shrunk from 22,000 to 5,000, and there were only 15 white rhinos left alive. Biological, Chemical, and Nuclear Weapons The production, testing, transport and use of these advanced weapons is perhaps the single most destructive effects of war on the environment. Though their use has been strictly limited since the bombing of Japan by the U.S. military at the end of World War II, military analysts have grave concerns about the proliferation of nuclear material and chemical and biological weaponry. Weve been very fortunate that we have not seen the devastation that we might see, says Bruch. Researchers point to the use of depleted uranium (DU) as one particularly dangerous military trend. DU is a byproduct of the uranium-enrichment process. Almost twice as dense as lead, its valued in weapons for its ability to penetrate tank armor and other defenses. An estimated 320 tons of DU were used in the Gulf War in 1991; in addition to soil contamination, experts are concerned that soldiers and civilians may have been exposed to dangerous levels of the compound. How Environmental Problems Lead to War While the effects of war on the environment may be obvious, whats less clear are the ways that environmental damage itself leads to conflict. Factions in resource-poor countries like those in Africa, the Mideast, and Southeast Asia have historically used military force for material gain; they have few other options. Bruch explains that once armed conflict begins, soldiers and populations under siege must find immediate sources of food, water, and shelter, so theyre forced to adapt their thinking to short-term solutions, not long-term sustainability. This short-term desperation leads to a vicious cycle of conflict, followed by people who meet their immediate needs in unsustainable ways, bringing deprivation and disillusionment, which then leads to more conflict. One of the chief challenges is to break that cycle, Bruch says. Can Warfare Protect Nature? It seems counterintuitive, but some have argued that military conflicts often end up preserving the natural environment. Its one of the findings thats utterly contrary to expectations, says Jurgen Brauer, Ph.D., professor of economics at Augusta State University in Augusta, Ga. The most preserved area in all of Korea is the demilitarized zone because you have the exclusion of human activity, he says. Other researchers have noted that despite the massive amounts of herbicide use during the Vietnam War, more forests have been lost in that country since the war ended than during it, due to peacetime commerce and Vietnams quest for prosperity. The coal-black skies caused by the Kuwaiti oil fires in 1991 provided dramatic visual evidence of war-related environmental damage. However, these oil fires burned in one month roughly the amount of oil burned by the United States in a single day. Peace can be damaging, too, says Dabelko. You have some of these ironic twists. But experts are quick to emphasize that this is not an argument in favor of armed conflict. War is not good for the environment, adds Brauer, who is also an author of War and Nature: The Environmental Consequences of War in a Globalized World. And Bruch notes that warfare only delays the environmental damage of peaceful human activity and commerce. It may provide a respite, but the long-term effects of war arent that different from what happens under commercial development, he says. Winning the Peace As military planning evolves, it becomes apparent that the environment now plays a greater role in successful combat, especially after an armed conflict ends. At the end of the day, if youre trying to occupy an area, you have a strong incentive not to ruin it, Dabelko says. The aforementioned biblical quote from Deuteronomy about preserving trees is, perhaps, good advice for the ages. And some warriors are learning that theres more to be gained from preserving the environment than in destroying it. In war-torn Mozambique, former military combatants have been hired to work together as park rangers protecting the wildlife and natural habitats that they once sought to destroy. That built bridges between the military and the park service. It has worked, Bruch says. Natural resources can be very important in providing jobs and opportunities in post-conflict societies.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

LAN Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

LAN - Essay Example The justification of the selected computing devices and the network equipment is required. The second step includes the network design. The design will clearly identify, floor connections, office connections, servers, workstations, printers, scanners and cable types. The third step is to implement a Wide Area Network (WAN) to connect other locations or Internet connectivity. 2 Network Pre requisites 2.1 First Floor The first floor includes Administration, Staff Office and the technical staff. The staff office will access the file server which is the ‘Students notes distribution server’ for uploading notes. Students are facilitated at the same time for downloading the notes. The lecturers will connect their laptops with the wireless access points installed equipped with the new 802.11n technology. Since the requirement of high bandwidth multimedia transmission is increasing, improving the (QoS) (Quality of service) is essential. A comprehensive illustration of Quality of services is available on network dictionary as â€Å"Quality of Service (QoS) refers to the ability of a network to provide higher priority services, including dedicated bandwidth, controlled jitter and latency (required by some real-time and interactive traffic), and improved loss characteristics, to selected network traffic over various WAN, LAN and MAN technologies.†.Keeping this in mind a new technology 8.2.11n is introduced by the IEEE (Kuo 2008). For keeping the network robust and efficient 802.11n protocol provides comprehensive support for voice and video services (Cai, Ling et al. 2009). These wireless access points are connected with a Cisco switch. For providing security, Virtual local area network (VLAN) is the best match for this scenario. The VLAN will split all domains for better administration, management and security. VLAN uses encryption techniques for transmitting data over the network. Access policy list is configured in the router for defining the rou tes. The router processes the data packets based on parameters. Internet protocol and subnet is the composition of the router to handle the routes on the destination. The policy for lecturers is to access to the file server, printers and email server. In this way, data transmission from the educational domain is secured. No one can determine the wireless network because only lecturer Internet protocol pool is allowed to communicate. If anyone tries to access the wireless network from outside, he or she is prompted to enter the Wired Equivalent Privacy key (WEP). A good illustration of WEP is available in the network dictionary which says † Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol, specified in the IEEE Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) standard, 802.11b, that is designed to provide a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a level of security and privacy comparable to what is usually expected of a wired LAN.† WEP provides security by an encryption algorithm. No one in the school can access the wireless network or the lecturers system. An additional Cisco switch installation has been proposed. Although one access point within a range of approximately 200 feet is enough for connecting 253 laptops. The staff can access the printer on the network. The printer is shared on the network and is visible at â€Å"My network places† in case of Microsoft operating systems. The requirement for the administrative staff is to access the email server,